Summary Judgment 101 teaches that pleadings, even sworn pleadings, are not competent summary judgment evidence. All Texas lawyers learn early-on that they cannot rely on pleadings to prove a fact, raise a fact issue in dispute or otherwise provide evidentiary support for a summary judgment.
While this is true as a general rule, it is not always so. There are times when a summary judgment may be properly based upon the pleadings standing alone. Whether a summary judgment can be based on pleadings depends in part on what cause of action is contained in the pleadings and whose pleadings are being considered.
Generally speaking, a party moving for summary judgment cannot rely on statements of fact contained in its own pleadings, even if those pleadings are verified or sworn to. However, if the plaintiff’s underlying cause of action requires a sworn response and if the defendant has failed to file a verified denial, then the plaintiff may move for summary judgment.
The most common example of this is in cases involving suits on sworn accounts. If a plaintiff properly pleads a suit on a sworn account and the defendant fails to file a verified denial of the account, then summary judgment may be granted based on the pleadings alone. Nguyen v. Short, How, Frels & Heitz, P.C., 108 S.W.3d 558 (Tex. App. — Dallas 2003) (“a defendant’s noncompliance with Rule 185 conclusively establishes that there is no defense to the suit on the sworn account). Quite often, a respondent may be given an opportunity to cure the pleading defect prior to summary judgment, but failing that, a summary judgment would be appropriate. In these cases, the movant’s pleadings are not considered summary judgment “evidence,” but absent a verified denial, movant’s pleadings do constitute prima facie proof sufficient to support the summary judgment.
Likewise, a non-movant may not rely on its own pleadings to establish a fact necessary to defeat a summary judgment motion, even if the pleading is verified. However, under certain circumstances, a movant may rely on the non-movant’s pleadings to establish its entitlement to summary judgment.
Admissions: The first way that this can occur is when a non-movant’s pleadings contain statements of fact or conclusions which are not pled in the alternative and which are directly contrary to its own theory of recovery or defense. Statements of fact such as these contained in the non-movant’s pleadings are considered judicial admissions which are conclusively established without the necessity of other evidence. For that reason, a non-movant’s pleadings of this nature may support a summary judgment for the moving party. As with the rule on suits on sworn accounts, admissions contained in the non-movant’s pleadings are not considered summary judgment “evidence” per se, but may nevertheless support the judgment. Judicial admissions are not considered summary judgment proof, but rather a waiver of proof because of their binding effect as an admission. Galvan v. Public Utilities Bd., 778 S.W.2d 580 (Tex. App. — Corpus Christi 1989) (defendant’s pleadings stating it was “an agency of the City of Brownsville, Texas” held sufficient proof to support plaintiff’s summary judgment on the issue of agency).
No Viable Cause of Action: The second way that this can occur is when a party’s pleading contains no viable cause of action under the law. This can occur in one of two ways: (1) pleading a cause of action which is not recognized under Texas law, or (2) failing to plead any cause of action at all. In either situation, a movant may support its motion for summary judgment on the non-movant’s pleadings alone. Helena Lab. Corp. v. Snyder, 886 S.W.2d 767 (Tex. 1994). Beware, however, that the Supreme Court expects that before a court grants a “no cause of action” summary judgment, the respondent be given an adequate opportunity to plead a viable cause of action. Friesenhahn v. Ryan, 960 S.W.2d 656 (Tex. 1998) (holding that because the movant’s special exceptions were denied, the respondents were “never on notice that their pleadings may be deficient”; therefore, summary judgment was improper).
While in some cases summary judgment may be based upon pleadings alone, when the summary judgment motion is based on a pleading defect, such as a lack of verification required by law or failure to plead a viable cause of action, the movant should first file a special exception and have that matter heard sufficiently in advance of the summary judgment motion to allow respondent adequate opportunity to cure its pleading defects. However, with regard to summary judgment motions based on admissions, an opportunity to cure is not required under the law.
In the next blog, we will explore issues regarding use of the more customary types of summary judgment evidence.
– Bonnie Sudderth, Judge of the 352nd District Court of Tarrant County, Texas