Hearsay exception number two – the excited utterance exception – is often confused with previously-discussed hearsay exception number one, the present sense impression. And while they are similar, and even on occasion, simultaneously applicable, the excited-utterance exception is significantly broader in scope. One way to differentiate between these first two hearsay exceptions is to identify the rationale underlying each of them. As discussed in the prior post, the rationale for the present sense impression exception stems from the statement’s contemporaneity. The rationale for the excited utterance exception, on the other hand, is rooted in its spontaneity.
Texas Rules of Evidence 803(2) defines the excited utterance as a statement relating to a startling event or condition made while the declarant was under stress or excitement caused by the event or condition. So, unlike the present sense impression statement which must have been made at or near the time the declarant was perceiving the event or condition, the excited utterance may occur at any time – hours or even days later. The test in determining whether a statement is an excited utterance is not when the statement was made, but whether the declarant was still dominated by the emotions, excitement, fear or pain of the event when the words were uttered. Of course, the amount of time which has elapsed between the occurrence of the startling event and the utterance is a factor considered in determining the admissibility of the hearsay statement, but it is not the only consideration.
Another key difference between the present sense impression and the excited utterance is the type of testimony which can be elicited using these exceptions. The subject matter restriction of the excited utterance exception is considerably more liberal than that of the present sense impression. Statements of present sense impression are limited to statements “describing or explaining an event or condition,” whereas, excited utterances need only “relat(e) to a startling event or condition.”
For the excited utterance exception to apply, three conditions must be met:
- the statement must be a product of a startling occurrence that produces nervous excitement in the declarant and renders the utterance spontaneous and unreflecting,
- the state of excitement must still so dominate the declarant’s mind that there is no time or opportunity to contrive or misrepresent, and
- the statement must relate to the circumstances of the occurrence preceding it.
These first two exceptions – the present sense impression and the excited utterance – often occur at the same time, and when they do the hearsay statement will fall within both exceptions. However, it is important to recognize the differences between them. Especially when too much time has passed between the occurrence and the statement, or when the statement delves into matters beyond mere description or explanation of the event, the proponent should move to hearsay exception number two, the excited utterance exception, to find a basis for admissibility.
— Bonnie Sudderth, Judge of the 352nd District Court, Tarrant County, Texas